Learn Covalent Bond: Examples & Definition, and how they form between atoms of different elements with examples to strengthen your understanding.
Covalent bonds are the strongest type of chemical bond and occur when two atoms share their electrons. In this article, we will discuss what covalent bonds are, how they form between atoms of different elements, and provide some helpful examples to aid your understanding.
Definition of Covalent Bond.
A covalent bond is a type of chemical bond that involves the sharing of electrons between two or more atoms. This type of bond occurs when atoms have similar electronegativities and form stable bonds in order to have a complete octet. In other words, two atoms are held together through their shared electrons in order to satisfy the octet rule.
Types of Covalent Bonds.
Covalent bonds can be classified into single, double, and triple covalent bonds. Single covalent bonds involve the sharing of a single pair of electrons between two atoms, while double and triple covalent bonds involve the sharing of two or three pairs of electrons respectively. The number of shared electrons influences the strength of the bond and whether or not it can be easily broken.
Examples of Covalent Bonds.
Two of the most common examples of covalent bonds are water (H2O), and carbon dioxide (CO2). In both cases, a single covalent bond is formed between two atoms. Oxygen forms two strong single covalent bonds with hydrogen in the case of water, while in carbon dioxide there is one strong double covalent bond formed between the oxygen atom and each of the carbon atoms.
Formation of a Covalent Bond.
A covalent bond is formed by the sharing of electrons between two atoms. Usually, this happens when the two atoms have similar electronegativities, meaning they pull on electrons with a similar strength in a given molecule or atom. The orbitals of each atom line up to form a single bond and the structure that forms is known as a “resonance hybrid” where each electron forms an individual bond with more than one atom.
How to Recognize a Covalent Bond?
To identify a covalent bond, look for two atoms with similar electronegativities forming a single, shared electron pair. This can be recognized by the presence of double-bonds or “side-by-side” bonds between the same element. Another clue is the formation of any molecules or compounds that contain two nonmetals, as this indicates that there is likely to be a covalent bond in operation.
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