PPT 8.1 Theories of acids and bases

PPT 8.1 Theories of acids and bases explain the Main Concepts of acid-base Theories.
Acid-base theories are the concepts used to explain and describe acidic and basic solutions. From Arrhenius and Bronsted-Lowry to Lewis acid-base theories, this guide will introduce you to the main concepts of acid-base chemistry, such as pH levels, reactivity, and electroneutrality.

Defining Acid-Base Reactions
An acid-base reaction is a chemical reaction between an acid and a base. It results in the formation of a salt and the release of energy. For example, when hydrochloric acid (HCl) is mixed with sodium hydroxide (NaOH), sodium chloride (NaCl) and water are formed, with heat given off as a result of the reaction. This type of reaction is also known as a neutralization reaction.

Characteristics of Acids and Bases
Acids have a sour taste, produce hydrogen ions in water solutions, turn litmus paper red, and are good conductors of electricity. Bases have a bitter taste, produce hydroxide ions in water solutions, turn litmus paper blue and are also good conductors of electricity. Acids and bases can be further subdivided into two categories: strong and weak. Strong acids fully dissociate into ions when dissolved in water while weak acids do not.

Proton Donors and Acceptors
Proton donors are typically called acids and proton acceptors are typically referred to as bases. Acids donate a proton to water molecules; the result is hydronium ions, H3O+. Bases accept protons from the water molecule, resulting in hydroxide ions, OH−. When an acid and a base interact with one another, protons are exchanged in a process known as neutralization. As a result of this process, salt and water is produced.

The Concept of Neutralization
Neutralization is the process of acid and base molecules interacting with each other and exchanging protons. The result is the formation of water and a salt. Neutralization describes both a single reaction between two species and the overall process of acid-base reactions, such as in titrations. Neutralization is typically represented by the following chemical equation: Acid + Base → Salt + Water.

pH Levels in Solution
The pH level in a solution can be measured to determine how acidic or basic a substance is. A pH of 7 indicates the solution is neither acidic nor basic and has a neutral pH value. Solutions with a pH below 7 are considered acidic, while solutions with a pH above 7 are classified as basic. The measurement for the strength of an acid or base is referred to as its molarity and, therefore, its range can vary greatly in concentration.

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