PPT 10.2 Functional group chemistry

For Understanding the Nomenclature Of Functional Groups in IB Chemistry you should go through PPT 10.2 Functional group chemistry: Want to sharpen your knowledge of functional group chemistry? In this post, explore important terms like alkanes, alkenes, aromatics, and more.
Are you looking to increase your understanding of functional group chemistry? Understanding the various functional groups, such as alkanes, alkenes, aromatics and more is essential for anyone interested in organic chemistry. In this post, explore important terms and discover how they work together to form particular chemical properties.

What are Functional Groups?
In organic chemistry, functional groups are specific atoms, ions or molecules that are attached to carbon atoms in organic molecules. These functional groups often provide the molecule with certain physical and chemical properties, such as solubility and reactivity. Understanding these functional groups is essential for anyone looking to understand organic compound synthesis and reactions.

Alkanes (Saturated Hydrocarbons)
Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons, which means that all the available carbon atoms are connected by single bonds between them. This makes alkanes highly stable molecules and unreactive to many reagents, compared to other functional groups. Examples of alkanes include methane (CH4), ethane (C2H6) and butane (C4H10).

Alkenes (Unsaturated Hydrocarbons)
Alkenes are unsaturated hydrocarbons, meaning that they have one or more double bonds between adjacent carbon atoms. When double bonds form between existing single bonds, the molecule’s stability is reduced and it becomes (slightly) reactive to certain reagents. Examples of alkenes include ethene (C2H4) and propene (C3H6).

Aromatic Hydrocarbons
Aromatic hydrocarbons – also known as arenes or aromatics – are compounds that possess at least one cyclic, conjugated system made exclusively of alternating single and double covalent bonds. Aromatic compounds often have pleasant, sweet smells and tend to be relatively stable compared to other functional groups. Examples include benzene (C6H6), xylene (C8H10) and naphthalene (C10H8).

Alcohol, Aldehydes and Ketones
These are organic compounds that contain one or more hydroxyl (–OH) groups covalently bonded to a carbon atom. Alcohols, aldehydes and ketones can be further broken down into primary, secondary, tertiary and cyclic alcohols (respectively 1°, 2°, 3° and allylic). Primary alcohols are easily oxidized to aldehydes while secondary alcohols undergo oxidation to form ketones. Tertiary alcohols cannot be oxidized and represent the most stable of the four variants.

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