12.1 Electrons in Atoms: HL Chemistry

Get up to speed on Electrons in Atoms for IB DP HL Chemistry without spending hours reading textbooks! This easy-to-read guide explains the topic with precision and examples. PPT 12.1 Electrons in Atoms: Everything You Need To Know For IB DP HL Chemistryenable you to understand deeper aspect of the topic in HL chemistry. It is the amount of energy needed to remove an electron from a gaseous atom to form a gaseous cation. We consider moles quantities of atom and electron for the calculation purposes.

M(g) –1e à M+(g)

The units are KJ/Mol.

From the equations provided in IB Diploma Chemistry data booklet on page 1 under some relevant equations,

  c=υλ and E=hυ

Thus E= hc/λ  where E= energy, h(Planck’s constant) = 6.63x 10-34 Js

υ = frequency and c is the speed of light(3.00x 108 m/s)

Whether you’re studying electrons in atoms for IB DP HL Chemistry or simply looking to brush up on a scientific topic, this guide 12.1 Electrons in Atoms: HL Chemistry provides an accessible overview of this key chemistry concept. Learn all about the structure of the atom and its basic components, what electrons do, and how they interact with other particles in chemical reactions.

Understand the structure of an Atom and how electrons are expressed including the energy shells, subshells and orbitals.

Atoms are composed of particles that include protons, neutrons, and electrons. Electrons alone have a particular importance in the chemistry world. Electrons are found on the outside part of the atom in electron shells or energy levels. These can be further divided into subshells which are designated s, p, d, f, etc and finally orbitals, which specify the exact location of an electron relative to the atomic nucleus.

Explore the terminology used to discuss electrons in an atom such as Electron Configuration, Valence Electrons and Effective Nuclear Charge.

To discuss electrons in an atom accurately, there are key terms and concepts that you need to know. Electron Configuration is the arrangement of electrons around an atomic nucleus and shells, which are energy levels of the atom. Valence Electrons are electrons found in the outermost shell of an atom and it’s these that determine how electons interact with other atoms to form compounds. Effective nuclear charge (or Z*) accounts for how strongly positively charged protons in the nucleus pull on electrons and is determined by subtracting a shielding unit from the number of protons in the nucleus.

Learn about Quantum Numbers including Principle Quantum Number (n), Angular Momentum Quantum Number (l), Magnetic Quantum Number (mℓ) and Spin Quantum number (ms).

All of these quantum numbers are very important in determining the energy levels and valence electrons of an atom. The Principle Quantum Number (n) is the number of shells that are present in an atom – it also denotes energy level and shell structure. The Angular Momentum Quantum Number (l) denotes subshells present in a shell which have different orientation when buying atoms with other atoms. The Magnetic Quantum Number (mℓ) denotes orbital angular momentum, which is specific to each atomic subshell, and is used to specify which sub-orbital around the nucleus is being discussed. Lastly, the Spin Quantum number (ms) specifies the spin direction of an electron, whether clockwise or anti-clockwise.

Familiarize yourself with Aufbau Principle, Pauli Exclusion Principle and Hund’s Rule – important concepts in Electrons in Atoms.

The Aufbau Principle states that electrons occupy the lowest energy levels available, whereas the Pauli Exclusion Principle prohibits two electrons in an atom from having identical quantum numbers. In atoms with many electrons, Hund’s Rule helps us to determine which orbitals are filled first. According to Hund’s Rule, single electron subshells are filled one electron at a time before the electron enters into a higher subshell when electrons exist with same spin orientation. Thus, each orbital is singly occupied before any orbitals can be doubly occupied.

Develop a comprehensive understanding of different types of Atomic Orbitals such as s-orbitals, p-orbitals, d-orbitals and f-orbitals.

Atomic orbitals are regions in an atom where electrons may exist, and they are classified by their principal quantum number. The s-orbital is spherical in shape, and the p-orbital has three nodes arranged in a dumbbell-like shape while the d-orbital has five particles arranged in a cloverleaf configuration and the f-orbital seven nodes. Electron filling of the orbitals follows the Aufbau Principle, which states that electrons occupy orbitals from lowest energy to highest. In cases where multiple orbitals have identical energy, Hund’s Rule dictates that each orbital must be singly occupied before any can become doubly occupied by two electrons with same spin orientation.

After going through the PPT 12.1 Electrons in Atoms: Everything You Need To Know For IB DP HL Chemistry, I am sure that you will be able to answer questions on thee topic.

You can refer quantum mechanical model here.

You can delve deeper by reading this book.