PPT on 6.1 Collision Theory and its Impact on Rates of Reaction
Exploring Collision Theory and its Impact on Rates of Reaction in IB DP Chemistry
Get a clear understanding of Collision Theory and how it impacts rates of reaction with this comprehensive guide for IB DP Chemistry Topic 6.1.
Understand What Collision Theory Is.
Collision Theory states that for a reaction to occur, the reacting particles must collide with each other and possess enough energy to cause a reaction. This theory is used as a way to understand and predict how changing reaction conditions can affect the rate of reaction, such as an increase in temperature or surface area. It’s important to remember that particles must have enough energy for the reaction to take place – it does not guarantee that all collisions will result in successful reactions.
Learn About the Necessary Factors for a Successful Reaction.
For a reaction to be successful, the colliding particles must possess energy and have the correct relative orientation – that is, they must collide with their atoms in the right positions so that a chemical reaction takes place. This is known as an ‘activated complex’. In addition, molecules must move fast enough to possess the necessary energy and have high enough rates of concentration for collisions to occur sufficiently often in a given time period. The higher any of these parameters are, the faster the rate of reaction.
Analyze the Effect of Temperature on Reactions.
Temperature is a key factor in determining the rate of reaction, because temperature affects the kinetic energy of molecules, which then affects the frequency and strength of collisions between reactants. At higher temperatures, molecules are faster-moving and have more energy, so collisions occur more frequently and with more force – resulting in increased reaction rates. Conversely, when temperatures are lower, reactants move slower and have less energy to carry out successful collisions.
Investigate the Impact of Concentration and Pressure on Reactions.
Collision Theory also helps us to understand how concentration and pressure can impact reaction rates. As with temperature, increasing the concentration of reactants will increase the likelihood of successful collisions — more molecules in a given space increases the frequency with which they come into contact. Similarly, increasing the pressure on reactants leads to increased collision speed and force, resulting in increased reaction rates.
Examine Surface Area and its Influence on Reaction Rates.
The surface area of a reactant is also key factor when considering reaction rates. Increasing the surface area of a reactant will increase the rate at which reactions occur, as it gives more places for molecules to come into contact with one another and so increases the likelihood of successful collisions. This is predominantly observed with solids dissolving in liquid, as increasing the surface area exposed will cause an increased rate of dissolution.
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